Geological History of Canaima.

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map_angel_fallsHistory of the geological formation of the National Park Canaima.

The National park is part of the plateau of the Guyanese shield that underlies the entirety of the lands located in  Venezuela to the south of the Orinoco, it is composed of three main geological formations. The oldest is an underlying igneous-metamorphic basement formed some 1.2-3.6 billion years ago whilst South America was joined to Africa as the supercontinent Gondwanaland. Between 1.6 and 1 billion years ago, this was overlain with a sedimentary cover. The first of these formations is too deeply buried to be visible within the park, but second (known as the Roraima Group) forms the basis of the area's extraordinary topography (Huber 1995). It consists of quartzite and sandstone strata which were probably laid down in shallow seas or large inland lakes (Briceño et al. 1990) during the Pre-Cambrian period. Lastly, during Palaeozoic and Mesozoic times magma repeatedly penetrated the existing sediments forming intrusive rocks which are typically diabases, and to a lesser extent granites.

The tepui formations, not unlike those found in the deserts of northern Arizona, came into being by a process of erosion of the surrounding lands over millions of years. The tepuis are sandstone massifs, and it is thought that what are today mountains once formed harder or less faulted strata which were more resistant to erosion.

There is an impressive array of different soil types. The low mineral content of the parent rocks of the Guayana Shield, the high rates of weathering that occur in tropical climates and the age of the sediments has produced soils which are generally acid and nutrient poor. Only where there are more basic igneous intrusions are the soils capable of supporting luxuriant forests or cultivation.

One third of the plants are found nowhere else on the planet

These important changes can be experienced in the geographic area where the Canaima National Park since its inception.

What you see today is the result of a long geological transformation over time has even today. With two billion years back to the days when it was forming the super continent Pangaea, which includes America, Africa, Antarctica, Asia and Europe.

The continent began to separate due to the bill for the crust of the earth thus causing the formation of the Atlantic Ocean, creating the different parts that we call shields. The geographical area of the Guayana Shield, existed from the beginning.

It began as a Great Plains of flat land, whose height was the same as that of the Tepuyes visible today, from about 2000 to 3000 meters high.

The formation of these lands are caused by erosion, which is the movement of different types of materials, traveling moved by the force of the strong water currents carrying rocks and minerals at different places.

These materials were deposited creating a database of igneous and metamorphic rocks coming from the crust that originated. These particles, produced by the erosion of crystalline rocks were consolidated in layers.

Quartzite and shale, these stones covered many kilometers of the crust, erosion moved a large part of the crust and the strange land were higher than they are known as Tepuyes which we see today on their surface planes with their own world in top.

old mapIn places where deposits of materials occurred in a certain order are highly resistant rock formed. In other places were deposited in a disorganized manner were less resistant rocks.  After the formation of the Great Plains, over a long period of time (about 400-200 million years) a series of climatic changes caused significant changes in the Guayana Shield. The transformation of the landscape is mainly due to the drastic weather changes from dry to wet and vice versa, to high, low and constant rainfall, drought, frost, shock of high and low temperatures, storms, hurricanes and Teutonic movements of the planet.

The erosion of the weather was removing material deposited in the great plains for millions of years. In places where the rock was less resistant erosion was higher, being a result of this great transformation, because of that the Tepuy and landscape of the Canaima National Park have their fantastic appearance as of today.

Written by :
Henrik Linde
 
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Angel Falls - Venezuela

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Angel Falls Adventure of 3 days

This is The Classic, and the original Adventure Tour - when visiting Angel Falls in Canaima (Higly Recommended)!.

Book it now!

A full VIP scheduled tour of 3 days and 2 nights with all meals and guides included, accommodation, all tours to the best spots in the park, including waterfalls, rivers, + the natural attractions in this part of the world, and of course a visit to the Angel Falls.

angel-falls-adventureThere are different options for accommodation and tours, from the simplest to the most comfortable for the most demanding. One can distinguish three categories of accommodations and rates.

- Adventure Tour: With one overnight in a Standard room in the community of Canaima, near the lagoon with private bathroom and fan. Complete with all meals included, great attention by the indigenous natives (Pemon Tribe) of the area. Including the second night sleeping in a hammock at the base camp in front of the Angel Falls -with a great view of Angel Falls.

With this option as a additional detail and if the weather conditions are favorable, we are including a visit to the water fall "Salto Hacha" an incredible experience - discover the strength and majesty of nature.

- Deluxe Tour: An intermediate alternative, with a comfortable over night's stay in front of the Canaima Lagoon room with private bathroom and air conditioning. The view of the landscape is very beautiful here, and with the famous Lagoon beach in front for a refreshing swim. The other night accommodation in the same lodge since the visit to Angel Falls is a full day tour so you can come back to stay two nights in your favorite lodge with all the comforts of a lodge next to the lagoon.

- The VIP Tour: Overnight stay in the best Lodge with the best location at the Canaima Lagoon with the most comfortable rooms to offer, with private bathroom and air conditioning. The restaurant offers all meals included, gourmet, a la carte or buffet. A visit to Angel Falls is included where you at the second night will be sleeping in a hammock at the base camp in front of the Angel Falls -with a great view of Angel Falls..     

Day 1:

sailing• Arrival in  Canaima by plane from Puerto Ordaz.

• The Angel Adventure Guide will assist at the airport.

• Transfer to the camp, lunch and the beginning of the expedition.

• After lunch, take a guided tour of Ara-Meru Falls where you can swim and walk in natural formations of Jade.

• Our next walk will take us to Sapo enjoying your fabulous curtain of water that can be enjoyed during the rainy season.

• The walk continues to Salto Hacha, followed by a half-hour walk through the jungle.

• Return to camp at the Anatoly Island for dinner, bath and rest.

Day 2:

• Depending on the conditions and the level of the waters of the Rio Churum we went by boat to get closer to Angel Falls.

• We arrived at Mouse Island (Island in front of the Falls) for camping and sleeping in hammocks.

• We walk an hour to get to where you can observe Angel Falls in all its splendor and bathe in her lap. Return the camp at noon for lunch.

• Dinner is served at Isla Raton followed by different accounts of the history of Canaima.

Day 3:

• Breakfast and transfer to the airport.

• Daily departures from Canaima to Puerto Ordaz en private plane. adventure_for_3_days

Prices include: Sightseeing, lunch, soft drinks and guides. Stay in the Orchid Island in hammocks at the camp, recommended as the best located camp, with nice people, and conditioning for the more adventurous travelers.

All options included with your stay a typical boating (canoe) from the Canaima Lagoon to see the falls of: Sapo, Ucaima, Wadaima and Axe.

Prices may vary according to season, fares and availability. Contact us for updated prices or a tailor made tour: Angel Falls Friends!

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